Atom is the smallest part of any state of solid, liquid or gases of anything in the world. An atom consists of three particles. All that is, Proton, Neutron, electron are its family members. Proton and neutron exist in the center of the atom. The electron goes round the proton and neutron. Proton, Neutron lies in the center. An electron moves around the proton and neutron. Movement of the electron is just like the planet move around the sun. Electron moves by several orbits. In the first orbit, there are two electrons. Then eight electrons exist in the second orbit. The next orbit number of electrons is eighteen.
In the above figure, red balls are protons. Yellows balls are neutrons. and a green spot on the circle is an electron. we know that round shapes body contain maximum volume. Therefore, the Shapeof those is like a round ball. All lies in a particular place. At the center exists proton and neutron. They keep themselves in a fixed position. Electron flows continuously around the center of proton and neutron. Flow of electron makes many circles nearer circle is less energy whereas the next orbit has more energy. The outermost orbit of an electron is the highest energy in magnitude this is the abhors model of an atom. Protons are of positive charge (+) and the electron is Negative charges(-) Neutron is neutral of charges. Therefore, positively charged and negatively charges cancels each other. The mass or weight of proton and Neutron is the same. It is for 1.67/10*24 grams. This we know as one Dalton. and weight (mass ) electron about to 1/1800 of proton and neutronhttps://courses.lumenlearning.com/
Atomic number and atomic mass
The atomic number of one element differs from others. If the number of protons changes at the center. For example, hydrogen has one proton in its center. Therefore its atomic number is one. 6 protons exist at the center of a carbon atom. Therefore, the atomic number of carbon is 6. Hydrogen is the lightest element in the world. It has one proton(+) one Electron (- ) and no neutron. The number of only protons of an element is the atomic number. The number of protons plus the number of neutrons is the mass number. When two or more different atoms compose it makes a molecule. .For example, two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen make one molecule of water ( H2O ).
Atomic number and periodic table.
When scientist found that there are so many elements that exist in the world. It needs to know the properties of elements as their mass, electron number, electron configuration, and their unique chemical properties. Therefore, scientists made a table and placed the element as per their properties. They arrange the elements in a series of the number of protons. As hydrogen has one proton in the center so its position is first in the table.
Mendeleev periodic table.
Dmitri Mendeleev introduced this idea. Elements of the same properties are placed in the same column. Metals were kept on the left side of the table whereas non-metals we found on the right side. Hydrogen has one proton in the center. Therefore, hydrogen placed in first, next is helium whose number of a proton is two. As the number of protons in the nucleus (center) increases they took their places one after another. Horizontal lines are periods and vertical lines are groups.
Detection of elements
We can see every detail of the element in the table. Therefore, we can easily detect the impurities in the ornaments of gold, silver, and other metals. Because of the same volume of different elements
If the nucleus inside an atom splits, It makes fragments with mass. It produces a huge amount of energy. Uranium-235, If splits into two parts it produces fission fragments. It builts more neutrons. Depending on this theory the atom bomb makes uranium-rich countries (not all ) of the world. we know the Uranium-235 bomb. We know this is an as little boy. On August 6, 1945, the USA dropped an atom bomb in Hiroshima. This made a speedy end of world war 2. The dropper of the bomb was Enola Gay. The weight of the bomb was 5 tons
Another atom bomb was FAT MAN. Based on plutonium 238 fission,
After three days another atomic bomb drops in Nagasaki. That was extremely inhuman for mankind. Therefore, after that incident, there is international control over this. Despite international control being in force, several nations are making atom bombs for security and other purposes of their own. They are making it very secretly.
Atomic energy for peaceful purposes.
Our country uses the above atomic energy for peaceful and human welfare purposes. It uses it in power generators. Its uses in health care, and agriculture purposes.
Know about radioactivity and half life